Critical Analysis of Renal Duplex Ultrasound Parameters in Detecting Significant Renal Artery Stenosis
Ali F AbuRahma, Mohit Srivastava, David D. Dearing, Stephen M Hass, Albeir Y Mousa, James R Campbell, L Scott Dean, Patrick A Stone, Tammi Keiffer
Robert C. Byrd Health Sciences Center of W. Va. Univ., Charleston, WV
INTRODUCTION: Several published studies have reported differing results of renal duplex ultrasound in detecting significant renal artery stenosis using different Doppler parameters. This study is the largest to date to compare renal duplex ultrasound versus angiography and validate various published Doppler criteria.
METHODS: 313 patients (606 renal arteries) had both renal duplex ultrasound and angiography. Renal artery stenosis was classified into: <60%, ≥60-99%, and occlusion. Main outcome measurement included: renal PSV, systolic renal-aortic ratios (RAR), EDV, resistive index (RI), and kidney sizes. ROCs were used to analyze PSV, EDV, and RAR in detecting ≥60% stenosis.
RESULTS: Renal duplex ultrasound was inconclusive in 4% (23/606). Mean PSVs and RAR for normal, <60%, and ≥60% stenosis were 173, 236, and 324 cm/sec (p<0.0001) and 2.2, 2.9, and 4.5, respectively (p<0.0001). The PSV, EDV, and RAR cutoff values with the best overall accuracy for normal renal arteries were 186 cm/sec, 33 cm/sec, and 2.4 (overall accuracy of 80%, 65%, and 76%, respectively).
The PSV cutoff value that provided the best overall accuracy for ≥60% stenosis was 285 cm/sec with a sensitivity, specificity, and overall accuracy of 81%, 80%, and 81%, respectively. The EDV and RAR cutoff values with the best overall accuracy for ≥60% stenosis were 62 cm/sec and 3.7, with a sensitivity, specificity, and overall accuracy of 75%, 74%, 74%, and 84%, 82%, 82%, respectively. A PSV of ≥180 cm/sec and RAR of ≥3.5 had a sensitivity, specificity, and overall accuracy of 72%, 82%, and 78% in detecting ≥60% stenosis. A PSV of ≥200 cm/sec with a RAR of ≥3.5 had a sensitivity, specificity, and overall accuracy of 73%, 82%, and 78% in detecting ≥60% stenosis.
ROC analysis showed that PSV and RAR were better than the EDV in detecting ≥60% stenosis: PSV area under the curve (AUC) was 0.85 with 95% confidence interval (CI) of 0.81-0.88, EDV AUC was 0.71 with CI of 0.66-0.76, and RAR AUC was 0.82 with CI of 0.78-0.86 (PSV vs EDV: p<0.0001, PSV vs RAR: p=0.075, EDV vs RR: p<0.0001, Figure 1). A PSV of 285 c/s or RAR of 3.7 alone were better than any combination of PSVs, EDVs, or RARs in detecting ≥60% stenosis.
Mean kidney length in patients with ≥60% stenosis was 10.4 cm versus 11.0 in patients with <60% stenosis (p<0.0001). 26/218 (12%) patients with ≥60% stenosis had a kidney size of ≤8.5 cm versus 14/354 (4%) in patients with <60% stenosis (p=0.0003). 6% (34/578) had accessory renal arteries on angiography (6/34 were detected on renal duplex ultrasound). The presence of accessory renal arteries, solitary kidneys (1.2%), or renal fibromuscular dysplasia have no influence on overall accuracy of using the PSV values for detecting ≥60% stenosis.
CONCLUSIONS: A PSV of 285 c/s or a RAR of 3.7 alone can be used in detecting ≥60% renal artery stenosis. Previously published data must be validated in individual vascular laboratories.
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