Aortoiliac Endarterectomy Provides a Durable Alternative to Bypass in Women and Patients with Small Native Vessels
Shivik Patel1, Sophia Trinh1, Amanda Tullos1, Alykhan Lalani1, Calin Manea2, Amit Chawla1, Denise Danos1, Claudie Sheahan1, Malachi Sheahan1
1Louisiana State University, New Orleans, LA;2York Hospital, York, PA
INTRODUCTION: Aortoiliac occlusive disease (AOID) is commonly managed with prosthetic bypass grafts or complex endovascular intervention. These techniques have decreased the utilization of aortoiliac endarterectomy (AIE) when treating AOID patterns in modern vascular practice. We sought to retrospectively evaluate our experience with AIE and assess the safety and efficacy of AIE in select patients with isolated AOID.
METHODS: At our institution we identified 25 patients with isolated AOID that underwent AIE from 2006-2022. Our primary endpoint was patency rate over follow-up. Secondary endpoints included 30-day mortality, overall survival, major adverse limb events (MALE) over time, and aortoiliac vessel diameters.
RESULTS: Twenty-five AIE procedures were studied. Indications for intervention included: lifestyle limiting claudication (72%, 18/25), tissue loss (12%, 3/25), acute limb ischemia (8%, 2/25), and ischemic rest pain (4%, 1/25). Most patients were female (72%, 18/25). Mean vessel diameters were smaller in women. Respectively, the mean vessel diameters for female and male patients were: Mid-aortic (10 and 16 mm, p= 0.001), Distal-aortic (9 and 17.5 mm, p= 0.007), Common iliac (5 and 9.1 mm, p= 0.006), and external iliac (4.1 and 7 mm, p= 0.002). One patient had AOID involving an external iliac artery, the remainder had disease limited to infrarenal aorta and common iliac arteries. The mean age was 53.6 years. Mean follow-up was 39 months. At 3-years, primary patency was 0.86 and secondary patency was 0.89 (Fig 1). 30-day survival was 100% and overall survival was 94%. Deaths included pulmonary embolus and subarachnoid hemorrhage. Freedom from MALE at 2- and 3-years was 0.89 and 0.81, respectively (Fig 2). Two patients presenting with acute limb ischemia had early post-operative iliac thrombosis necessitating thrombectomy, one of which required amputation from distal embolization. Four patients had late iliac occlusion - one requiring thrombolysis with external iliac artery intervention, two were asymptomatic, and the other requiring amputation. Three patients had progressive infrainguinal disease, two requiring intervention and one amputation. CONCLUSIONS: AIE is a durable option in patients with small vessels and AOID that is limited to the aorta and common iliac arteries. Although overall survival is not affected, AIE in the setting of acute presentation appears to have higher complication rates and lower patency.
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