Prosthetic Outcomes after Amputation and the Impact of Mobility Level on Survival.
William P Shutze, Sr.1, Gerald Ogola2
1The Heart Hospital Baylor Plano, Plano, TX;2The Heart Hospital Baylor Plano, Dallas, TX
Background: Despite advances in peripheral vascular disease treatment, lower extremity amputation continues to be necessary in a significant number of patients. The 5 year survival following an amputation is markedly reduced. Many of these patients will be referred for a prosthesis but there is a dearth of knowledge regarding the functional status of these patients, the progression rates from temporary to permanent prosthesis and the impact of mobility level on survival.
Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of all patients that underwent lower-extremity amputation by surgeons in our practice from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2019. Age, sex, race, body mass index (BMI), diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, end stage renal disease, prior coronary artery bypass graft surgery, congestive heart failure, tobacco use, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score, previous arterial procedure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, statin use, postoperative ambulatory status, level of amputation, stump revision, and referral for prosthesis were collected. Abstracted prosthetic data included time to temporary and permanent prostheses, type of prosthesis, and the United States' Medicare Functional Classification Level (MFCL) K level. Survival was determined from a combination of sources, including the Social Security Death Master Index, multiple genealogic registries, and internet searches. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine risk factors associated with prosthesis referral. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression with time dependent covariates was performed to assess risk factors associated with 5-year mortality.
Results: There were 464 patients included in this study. Mean age was 65 years and mean body mass index 27 kg/m2. The majority of patients were male (68%), white (56%), with diabetes (62%), and hypertension (76%), and underwent below-the-knee amputation (BKA) (69%). Prosthetic referral occurred in 123 (36%). On multivariate analysis age >81 years and current tobacco use were associated with no referral for prosthetic fitting. Overall 5-year survival was 41.9% (95%CI, 37.6%-46.6%) (BKA 47.7% [95%CI, 42.5%-53.5%], above-the-knee amputation 28.7 % [95%CI, 22.1%-37.2%]). On multivariate analysis age >60 years, CHF, transfemoral amputation and no prosthetic referral were associated with decreased survival (Figure 1). Increasing K level was incrementally associated with improved survival (Figure 2).
Conclusion: We identified multiple patient factors associated with prosthetic referral, as well as several characteristics predictive of reduced survival after amputation. Being referred for prosthetic fitting was associated with improved survival not explained by patient characteristics and comorbidities. For the first time the United States' Medicare Functional Classification Level (MFCL) K level has been shown to predict mortality. Further research is needed to determine the barriers to prosthetic referral and if improving a patients K level will improve survival.
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