Endovascular Repair of a Symptomatic Chronic Type A Aortic Dissection Using an Arch Branched Device
Gerald R Fortuna, Jr., Kristofer M Charlton-Ouw, Anthony L Estrera, Ali Azizzadeh
University of Texas at Houston, Houston, TX
BACKGROUND - Management of ascending aortic dissections (type A) in octogenerians presents a unique surgical challenge. We present the endovascular repair of a symptomatic chronic type A aortic dissection using an arch branched device in a patient at high risk for open surgical repair.
METHODS - The patient is an 85 year-old man with a symptomatic, chronic type A aortic dissection and history of uncontrolled hypertension, dyslipidemia, chronic atrial fibrillation, and pulmonary hypertension. Originally presented 3 years ago with acute type B aortic dissection-penetrating aortic ulcer (PAU) and intramural hematoma (IMH) initially managed medically. Follow up computed tomographic angiography (CTA) performed for refractory pain during same hospitalization showed enlargement of the PAU, IMH, and new pleural effusion. The patient subsequently underwent thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) with left subclavian artery preservation. He was discharged home without complication. Surveillance CTA’s at 1, 6, and 12 months were unremarkable. Follow up CTA at 2 years demonstrated new type A dissection with focal saccular aneurysm of the ascending aorta. Primary entry tear was at the ostium of the left common carotid artery proximal to the existing TEVAR. Conservative management was initiated for prohibitive risk of open repair. The patient subsequently presented with occasional chest pain. He was considered to be a suitable candidate for endovascular repair using an arch branched device (Thoracic Branched Endosystems [TBE], WL, Gore, Flagstaff, AZ). Compassionate use of this investigational device was approved outside of existing protocols by the Food and Drug Administration as well as local institutional review board.
RESULTS - Prior to beginning endovascular interventions, aortic arch debranching was accomplished. Right common carotid to left common carotid to left subclavian artery bypass was performed using a 8mm retropharyngeal tunneled Dacron graft. The proximal left common carotid artery was ligated and end-to-side anastomosis created with the distal left common carotid artery and Dacron bypass graft. An-end-to-side anastomosis was then created between the Dacron graft and left subclavian artery. Next, through a percutaneous right femoral approach (26-French), the innominate artery was cannulated and a buddy wire inserted. The TBE device (53 mm x 15 cm) was advanced over a stiff wire and placed into the aortic arch. To assist innominate artery branch port alignment the buddy wire was retrieved from the right neck incision. Once adequate alignment was confirmed, the zone 0 TBE was deployed. The innominate artery branch component (20mm x 12mm x 6cm) was delivered and deployed in standard fashion. Completion angiography demonstrated no evidence of endoleak. He was subsequently discharged in good condition.
CONCLUSION - Treatment of high risk patients with type A aortic dissection presents a surgical challenge. Endovascular treatment with branched devices may provide a suitable alternative to open repair in this patient population.
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