Renal artery aneurysms are primarily treated in the non-elective setting
Mitri K. Khoury1, Fred A. Weaver2, Nicole M. Nevarez1, Shirling Tsai1, Bala Ramanan1, John G. Modrall1
1University of Texas, Southwestern, Dallas, TX;2University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA
INTRODUCTION: The risk of rupture of renal artery aneurysms (RAAs) remains undefined. A recent paper from the Very Low Frequency Disease Consortium (VLFDC) identified only 3 ruptures in 760 patients from 16 hospitals. Based on their data, the VLFDC concluded that RAA rupture is rare and suggested a more conservative approach to patient selection. However, over 80% of patients in the VLFDC study were treated at large academic centers, which may not accurately reflect the clinical presentation and pattern of care of RAAs nationwide. Understanding the pattern of non-elective repairs of RAAs nationwide would provide additional information regarding the relative risk of RAAs. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the pattern of emergency vs. elective surgery for RAAs, including nephrectomies, and their outcomes using a national database.
METHODS: The National Inpatient Sample (NIS) database from 2012-2018 was utilized. Patients with RAAs were identified using ICD-9 and ICD-10 codes 442.1 and I72.2, respectively. The procedure codes for each admission were evaluated to determine whether a patient had undergone a nephrectomy, open, or endovascular RAA repair. Non-elective and elective admissions were analyzed separately. The NIS Severity of Illness (SOI) score was used to determine perioperative risk. The primary outcome variables for this study were proportion of RAAs requiring non-elective surgery and in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: There were a total of 590 inpatient admissions for RAA identified with a total of 554 procedures at 467 hospitals across the country. The median age was 61 years [IQR 51-72 years] with 54.1% (n=319) being male. Nearly two-thirds (n=380; 63.2%) of admissions were non-elective. Patients treated in the non-elective setting had higher SOI scores (2 [IQR 2-3] versus 2 [IQR 1-3], P<.001). Subset analysis of the patients who underwent an open operation (n=159) revealed that patients were significantly more likely to undergo a nephrectomy in the non-elective setting versus the elective setting (46.9% versus 17.3%, P<.001). Females were more likely to undergo nephrectomy compared to males (9.6% versus 5.0%, P=.037). Patients were significantly more likely to receive an endovascular procedure in the non-elective setting; whereas, they were more likely to receive an open RAA repair in the elective setting (Table). The overall mortality rate for the cohort was 1.4% (n=8). There were no differences in in-hospital mortality in the elective versus non-elective setting (1.0% versus 1.6%; P=.718). In the non-elective setting, patients undergoing nephrectomy trended towards higher SOI scores (3 [IQR 2-4] versus 2 [IQR 2-3], P=.054] and had higher in-hospital mortality rates compared to all other procedures (8.7% versus 1.1%, P=.045).
CONCLUSIONS: The majority of patients with RAAs required non-elective admission, resulting in a high proportion of nephrectomies. These data are at odds with the perception that RAAs are generally benign and suggests that current recommendations altering the size threshold criteria for repair of RAAs may be premature.
|Elective (n=210)||Non-Elective (n=380)||P-Value|
|Type of Procedure||<.001|
|Endovascular||94 (44.8%)||301 (79.2%)|
|Open||110 (52.4%)||49 (12.9%)|
|None||6 (2.9%)||30 (7.9%)|
|Nephrectomy||19 (9.0%)||23 (6.1%)|
|Other||91 (44.6%)||26 (7.4%)|
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