Perioperative and Long-term Outcomes of Patients with Pulmonary Embolism Undergoing Catheter-directed Thrombolysis versus Percutaneous Mechanical Thrombectomy
Junji Tsukagoshi, Benjamin Wick, Abbas Karim, Kamil Khanipov, Mitchell Cox
University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston, Galveston, TX
BACKGROUND: Thrombolytic therapy has long been the mainstay of treatment for massive or sub-massive pulmonary embolism (PE), which remains a common yet highly morbid condition. Percutaneous mechanical thrombectomy options have more recently become widely available and have been utilized for the treatment of acute PE, but evidence comparing the two options remains limited.
METHODS: Using TriNetX Data Network, a global federated database of over 75 million patients, we conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients from 2017 to the present with a diagnosis of pulmonary embolism, treated with either percutaneous mechanical thrombectomy (PMT) or catheter-directed thrombolysis (CDT). Eligible patients were 1:1 propensity score-matched for several preoperative co-variates including demographics, surgical history, and comorbidities. We calculated and compared the 30-day outcomes of all-cause mortality, pulmonary hypertension (PH), heart failure (HF), acute respiratory failure (RF), blood transfusion, myocardial infarction (MI), intracranial hemorrhage (ICH), and gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB) using odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). Also, the 5-year outcomes of all-cause mortality, PH, HF, RF, and emergency department (ED) visits, were compared using hazard ratio (HR) with 95% CI.
RESULTS: We identified 2,978 patients treated with PMT and 1,137 patients treated with CDT. After matching, we compared 1,102 patients in each cohort. 30-day outcomes, all-cause mortality, acute RF, and blood transfusion were similar between the two groups. However, compared to CDT, PMT was associated lower risk of PH (OR [95% CI] = 0.53 [0.41-0.68]), MI (OR [95% CI] = 0.54 [0.39-0.75]), ICH (OR [95% CI] = 0.46 [0.24-0.89], and GIB (OR [95% CI] = 0.42 [0.28-0.63]). At long-term follow-up, although the all-cause mortality and RF remained similar, PMT was associated with lower rates of PH (HR [95%CI] = 0.65 [0.55-0.78]), HF (OR [95% CI] = 0.67 [0.56-0.80]), and ED visits (OR [95%CI] = 0.73[0.61-0.87]).
CONCLUSIONS: Compared to CDT, PMT was associated with fewer 30-day postoperative complications in PH, MI, ICH, and GIB for patients with PE undergoing percutaneous interventions. More importantly, PMT was associated with improved long-term PH, HF, and less ED visits despite comparable all-cause mortality and RF. As compared with catheter-directed thrombolysis, percutaneous mechanical thrombectomy is demonstrated to have an improved safety profile and better long-term outcomes.
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