Renal Artery Stenting in Patients on Dialysis: Utility or Futility?
J. Gregory Modrall, Song Zhang, John Hanna, Christopher U. Lehmann, Shirling Tsai, Bala Ramanan, Robert D. Toto, Senthil Sambandam
University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX
Background: Anecdotal reports suggest that renal artery stenting (RAS) in selected patients on hemodialysis can improve kidney function to free them from dialysis therapy. However, there are no randomized controlled trials comparing RAS to no RAS in this population. The objective of our study was to define the probability of rescue from hemodialysis after RAS and to identify features of best candidates.
Methods: We queried the TriNetX clinical data repository, with electronic health record data from 52 Healthcare Organizations and 73 million patients, for patients who underwent RAS between 2014-2023. RAS cases were identified by CPT codes matched with concurrent ICD-10-CM diagnosis codes. “Responders” to RAS were defined by the absence of hemodialysis postoperatively. Patients requiring any postoperative dialysis were deemed “non-responders.”
Results: 173 patients met inclusion criteria. 33 of 173 (19.1%) were rescued from dialysis after stenting and were categorized as responders. At 30-90 days post-stenting, the median eGFR for responders was 51.6 ml/min/1.73 m2 (IQR 32.1-66.1) and remained stable over a median follow-up of 1.1 years (IQR 0.4-2.9 years). Survival was superior for responders, compared to non-responders (Log-rank test, P<0.0001). To identify putative predictors of rescue from dialysis, the baseline characteristics of responders and non-responders were compared (Table 1). Responders had a lower prevalence of diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and smoking than non-responders. Responders had a higher prevalence of bilateral RAS. Pre-stenting, responders had a shorter duration of dialysis compared to non-responders (P=0.008). Based on the Youden Index, the optimal cutoff for the duration of preoperative dialysis that was associated with a higher probability of rescue from dialysis was 79.5 days. Logistic regession analysis identified three predictors of rescue from dialysis after stenting: 1) duration of pre-stenting dialysis < 79.5 days [Odds Ratio (OR) = 5.1, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 2.2-12.1; P=0.0002); 2) diabetes (OR = 0.33, 95% CI = 0.13-0.85; P=0.02); and smoking (OR=0.41, 95% CI = 0.17-0.99; P=0.047). The C statistic for the regression model was 0.76. Using the two primary predictors (duration of pre-stenting dialysis and diabetes) correctly predicted 84.4% of the outcomes of RAS in this cohort.
Conclusions: Our study identified the potential utility of RAS in patients on dialysis, although only 1 in 5 stented patients were removed from dialysis. To increase the probability of rescue from dialysis, RAS should be focused on non-diabetic patients with a shorter duration of pre-stenting dialysis, defined as a duration of less than 79.5 days.
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