Ten-year clinical and aortic remodeling outcomes following TEVAR for chronic type B aortic dissection
David Urick, Christopher W Jensen, Andrew M Vekstein, Mary Moya-Mendez, Lillian Kang, Chandler A Long, G. Chad Hughes, IV
Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC
INTRODUCTION: Thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) has increasingly replaced open surgery for complicated Type B aortic dissection (TBAD). However, TEVAR may promote less aortic remodeling in the chronic phase due to the stiffened dissection membrane. Furthermore, no data exists on very long-term outcomes for TEVAR in this setting. This study details 10-year clinical and aortic remodeling outcomes following TEVAR for chronic TBAD.
METHODS: Patients undergoing TEVAR for chronic (>90 days), complicated (aneurysmal degeneration, malperfusion, rupture) TBAD were identified from a prospectively-maintained institutional database. Aortic remodeling trends were extracted by reviewing surveillance imaging data according to SVS/STS guidelines. Measurements in the plane orthogonal to the aortic vessel centerline were taken at five locations: the maximal aortic diameter at baseline, the distal end of the stent graft, the maximal perivisceral diameter, the maximal infrarenal diameter, and the maximal iliac diameter. The preoperative scan was used for baseline measurements. The primary outcome was aorta-specific survival. Secondary outcomes included the need for aortic reintervention and presence of aortic remodeling on surveillance imaging.
RESULTS: A total of 197 patients (73% male, median age 60.7 years) undergoing TEVAR for chronic TBAD were included (Table). Median time between dissection diagnosis and TEVAR was 3.3 years. The population had a high comorbidity burden including hypertension (93%) and tobacco use (58%). 86 of the included patients had residual TBAD from prior Type A repair, and 27 had a connective tissue disorder (CTD) diagnosis. The median maximal aortic diameter preoperatively was 55.0 mm (IQR 50.0-60.0 mm).
TEVAR was performed successfully in all patients, with a 30-day mortality of 2.0% (4 patients). Kaplan-Meier aorta-specific survival was 88% at 10 years, while overall survival was 53% (Figure). 72 patients required a total of 129 aortic reinterventions, including embolization for false lumen endoleak (n=48, 39 patients), open (n=24) and/or endovascular (n=18) repair for thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm (32 patients), and TEVAR extension (n=17, 16 patients). Nine patients required open reintervention in the ascending aorta and/or arch for new retrograde dissection or aneurysmal degeneration.
Positive aortic remodeling at the maximal in-stent diameter was observed in 79% of patients at 1 year, 85% at 3 years, and 89% at 5 years. However, remodeling was less likely to occur distally, with 5-year remodeling rates of 57% at the distal stent end, 6% in the perivisceral aorta, and 7% in the infrarenal aorta.
CONCLUSIONS: In our experience, TEVAR for chronic, complicated TBAD a low rate of long-term aortic-related mortality. However, reinterventions for endoleak and progressive aneurysmal disease are frequently required. Additionally, positive aortic remodeling was chiefly confined to the thoracic zone where the TEVAR graft was deployed. These findings highlight the need for lifelong surveillance of these patients.
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