Endovascular Management of Chronic Total Occlusions of the Inferior Vena Cava
Erin H Murphy, Blake Johns, Elliot Varney, Seshadri Raju
RANE Center, Jackson, MS
Endovascular Management of Chronic Total Occlusions
of the Inferior Vena Cava
Erin H. Murphy MD, Blake Johns, Elliot Varney, Seshadri Raju MD.
Percutaneous recanalization and stenting is currently the standard of surgical care for symptomatic chronic total occlusions of the iliofemoral veins. Occlusions involving the inferior vena cava present a more complex patient subset. In this series we describe our large volume single-center experience.
Patients were evaluated with duplex ultrasound, venous function tests and venography prior to intervention. Occluded segments were recanalized, balloon dilated and stented. Modifications of the basic stent technique were employed over time and modified to accommodate the iliocaval junction, presence of IVC filters, and lesions extending to the renal veins and atrium.
Between November 2000 and August 2015, 68 patients underwent IVC endovascular recanalization procedures for symptomatic chronic IVC occlusions. Patients had a male predominance (n=40, 58.9%) and an average age of 51 years (range: 23-77). Underlying contributing factors for venous occlusion included: inferior vena cava filter occlusion (n=36, 52.9%), caval ligation/clipping (n=4, 5.8%), hypercoagulable disorder (n=21, 30.8%). Technical success rate was 91.2% (n=62). The proximal extent of the stents were infrarenal (n=43, 63.2%), suprarenal (n=11, 16.2%), or intrathoracic (n=8, 11.8%). There was minimal perioperative morbidity (hematoma n=1), and no postoperative mortality. Average follow-up was 48.0±43.3 (range: 6-172) months. Primary, primary assisted and secondary patency rates at 42 months were 74%, 80% and 100%. Significant improvement in pain and swelling was seen in 92% and 77%. Complete relief of pain and swelling was 63% and 36% respectively. Ulcers were present in 13 patients and completely healed in 9 (69%) after recanalization. The venous clinical severity score was 7.85±4.7 (range: 4-27) before intervention and 3.9±3.2 (range: 0-14) after intervention (p<0.001).
Endovascular management of chronic IVC occlusions can be performed with minimal morbidity and mortality in this technically complex patient population. When successful, symptoms are universally improved and patency rates are acceptable.
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