Bleeding and thrombotic outcomes associated with postoperative use of direct oral anticoagulants following open peripheral artery bypass procedures
Andrea T Obi, Jonathan R Thompson, Nicholas H Osborne, Jeremy Albright, Loay Kabbani, Robert Bealieu, Katherine A Gallagher, Peter K Henke
University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI
INTRODUCTION: The widespread use of the direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) for the treatment of atrial fibrillation and venous thromboembolism has inevitably resulted in peripheral bypass patients receiving therapeutic anticoagulation (AC) with DOACs post-operatively. No recommendations exist to guide whether DOACs can be safely used as an alternative to vitamin k antagonists (VKAs) for prophylaxis of high risk bypass grafts. This study was undertaken to evaluate the bleeding and thrombotic outcomes of patients undergoing open peripheral bypass treated with DOACs compared to VKAs.
METHODS: We examined data from a large statewide multicenter quality improvement vascular surgery registry of all patients undergoing elective, urgent or emergent peripheral bypass operations between January 2012 and December 2017. Outcomes included length of stay, transfusion, readmission, return to operating room, 1 year primary patency and major amputation within 1 year. Statistical significance between treatment groups was determined using pairwise Wilcoxon Rank sum tests for continuous variables and pairwise chi-square or Fisher exact tests for categorical variables. Multivariate logistic regression was performed for bleeding complications and graft occlusion. Post-hoc pairwise comparisons for treatment groups were calculated using Tukey’s p-value adjustment.
RESULTS: In total 9,682 patients met our inclusion criteria. Post-operatively 7,605 patients received no AC, 1,456 received a VKA and 621 a DOAC. Patients receiving AC were older, had a higher BMI, more likely to have preoperative anemia, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, congestive heart failure, coronary artery disease and atrial fibrillation (all p<0.05). Compared to patients treated with VKA, patients treated with DOACs were less likely to have valvular disease and chronic renal insufficiency, and more likely to have atrial fibrillation (all p<0.05). LOS varied significantly amongst treatment groups, with the shortest length of stay in patients receiving no AC (median 5 days, IQR 3-9, p<0.001), followed by DOACs (median 6 days, IQR 3-11, p<0.001) and the longest LOS observed in patients treated with VKAs (median 8 days, IQR 5-13, p<0.001). Peri-operative transfusion was significantly higher in pts treated with VKAs (33.9%), compared to DOAC (28.7%, p=0.023) and no anticoagulant (23.8%, p<0.0001). Primary patency at one year did not differ amongst groups. Return to OR for graft occlusion (3.5% VKA, 3.4% DOAC v. 1% no AC, p<0.001) and amputation (19.2% VKA, 17.1% DOAC, v. 11.9% no AC p<0.001) were higher in patients receiving AC compared to those not receiving AC, regardless of type (VKA compared to DOAC). On multivariate analysis, procedure status (emergent OR 2.31 [95% CI 1.39-3.84] p=0.001, urgent OR 1.60 [95% CI 1.04-2.45] p=0.032) were predictors of graft occlusion. No AC patients were less likely to experience graft occlusion (OR 0.40 [95% CI 0.27-0.59], p<0.001).
CONCLUSIONS: Amongst a mixed group of patients undergoing lower extremity bypass, those treated with a DOAC post operatively had a shorter LOS and were less likely to receive a transfusion in the perioperative setting without compromising graft patency or affecting amputation rate when compared to those treated with VKA. These data suggest the need for a prospective trial evaluating DOAC safety and efficacy in patients requiring AC for high risk bypass grafts.
Back to 2019 Abstracts